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‘Exotic Hadrons’ push Boundaries of Physics

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Apr 11, 2014 11:22 AM EDT
Shown is the traditional model of a quark.
Physicists at Syracuse University have helped confirm the existence of "exotic hadrons" - a type of matter that cannot be classified within the traditional quark model. Shown is the traditional model of a quark. (Photo : Wikipedia commons)

Physicists at Syracuse University have helped confirm the existence of "exotic hadrons" - a type of matter that cannot be classified within the traditional quark model. Their finding is the subject of a forthcoming article, prepared by the Large Hadron Collider beauty Collaboration at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, announced in a release from the school. Physics professor Tomasz Skwarnicki is one of the paper's lead authors.

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"We've confirmed the unambiguous observation of a very exotic state - something that looks like a particle composed of two quarks and two anti-quarks," said Skwarnicki, a specialist in experimental high-energy physics. "The discovery certainly doesn't fit the traditional quark model. It may give us a new way of looking at strong-interaction physics."

Quarks are hard, point-like objects found within the nucleus of an atom. When quarks combine in threes, they form compound particles known as baryons. Protons are probably the best-known baryons. Sometimes, quarks interact with corresponding anti-particles, known as anti-quarks, which have the same mass but opposite charges.

When this happens, they form mesons. These compounds often turn up in the decay of heavy man-made particles such as those in particle accelerators, nuclear reactors, and cosmic rays. Mesons, baryons, and other kinds of particles that take part in strong interactions are called hadrons.

This classification remained virtually unchallenged until 2007, when an international team of 400 physicists and engineers, known as the Belle Collaboration, discovered an exotic particle called Z(4430), which appeared to have two quarks and two anti-quarks.

"Some experts argued that Belle's initial analysis was naïve and prone to arrive at an unjustified conclusion," Skwarnicki said. "As a result, many physicists concluded that there was no good evidence to prove this particle was real."

After an even more rigorous analysis of the same data set, Belle found statistically significant evidence for Z(4430), despite the complexity of the analysis and a large number of assumptions made about the particle's production environment.

"This experiment is the clincher, showing that particles made up of two quarks and two anti-quarks actually exist," Skwarnicki said. "There used to be less-clear evidence for the existence of such a particle, with one experiment being questioned by another. Now we know this is an observed structure, instead of some reflection or special feature of the data."

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