Aa currently evolve into two genetically distinct species as a result of apple trees changing their fruiting cycles, they're have a domino effect on predatory wasps, a process known as sequential speciation.
While evolving with specialized defenses has helped animals escape predation, long-term risks need to be considered. The simple act of camouflage or mimicry, which sufficiently confuses prey, doesn't seem to have backfired, but the use of chemical defenses has. In fact, some amphibians that release lethal toxins to kill predators are now at a higher risk of extinction.
Orchids are a complicated and diverse group of flowering plants that are able to live in a wide range of ecosystems. A newly developed family tree helps explain the flower's speciation history.
Charles Darwin's famous finches from the Galápagos archipelago and Cocos island are hallmark examples of speciation and adaptive evolution. Now, new research shows how over the years these birds developed the extraordinary diversity in beak shape that we see today.