Pre-reptile Bunostegos akokanensis is the earliest known creature to stand upright on all four legs. This species was thought to be a sprawler, but researchers from Brown University found that it had shoulders extending directly underneath its body instead of out to the sides.
Birds crash into things sometimes, whether it's windows, cars, plans, or even unfortunately the occasional wind turbine. But for the most part, it's smooth sailing for these expert fliers. And given that navigating a cluttered environment at high speed one of the greatest challenges in biology, researchers wanted to learn how birds have managed this feat. It turns out it's all in their posture.